Dr. Robert Gifford discussed his research into the psychology of climate action and inaction. In particular, he considered the question of how to engage people in actions to help mitigate climate change rather than just express concern about it, and he identified the seven key psychological barriers to individual climate action. In this way, he provided valuable insight into the behaviors which policy makers and companies need to target to ensure efficient energy use, in a cost effective manner (at The Institute of International and European Affairs in 2013).