American Planning Association recently published QuickNotes about Community Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design or CPTED (pronounced “sep-ted”).

They presented 10 key principles of CPTED:

1. Natural Surveillance—the design and placement of physical features to maximize visibility and surveillance. Key strategies include the design, placement, and lighting of doors, windows, walkways, gathering areas, roadways, and structures. The objectives are to eliminate hiding places and increase the perception of human presence or supervision.

2. Natural Access Management—the physical guidance of people and vehicles. Key strategies include the use of real or perceived barriers such as fencing or plantings, and other wayfinding elements such as lighting, signage, and artwork. The objectives are to provide orientation and a pedestrian-friendly environment and to discourage would-be offenders by making noncompliance obvious.

3. Territorial Reinforcement—the use of physical attributes to delineate space and express a positive sense of ownership. Key strategies include the use of art, signs, landscaping, and boundary treatments as well as the orientation and strategic placement of buildings. The objectives are to define borders, express ownership, and communicate a space is cared for and protected.

4. Physical Maintenance—the repair, replacement, and general upkeep of a space, building, or area. Key strategies include the use of low-maintenance landscaping and architectural materials, trash collection and removal, and other programs to maintain a clean and orderly environment. The objective is to allow for the continued use of a space for its intended purpose.

5. Order Maintenance—the attention to minor violations and reduction of opportunities for inappropriate behavior. Key strategies include posting rules and expectations, using graffiti- and vandalism-resistant materials, and imposing quick, fair, and consistent consequences for violations. The objectives are to
foster safe, orderly, and predictable behaviors.

6. Activity Support—the planning and placement of safe activities. Key strategies include sidewalk and street level activities, such as markets, fairs, and festivals, in key community areas. The objective is to increase the number of people using a space, thereby enhancing visibility, social comfort and control.

7. Social Capital—the social trust, norms, and networks people draw upon to solve common problems, foster civic engagement, and discourage inappropriate behaviors. Key strategies include designated gathering areas, social events, community programs, and communication protocols or equipment. The objective is to encourage communication, trust, and collaboration among stakeholders and also with the governmental agencies that serve them.

8. Land Use and Community Design—the distribution, location, and amount of land for various uses; their density and intensity; and the design elements, strategies, and overall character of a planning area. Key strategies include team training for professionals involved in planning and development activities, solicitation of community public safety concerns and collaboration in problem solving, and incorporation of CPTED principles into planning processes. The objectives are to create, or recreate,  and manage built environments in a manner that includes considerations for public safety.

9. Target Hardening—the making of potential targets resistant to criminal attack.Key strategies include the reinforcement of entry and exit features, law enforcement or security presence, and security devices such as locks, alarms, and cameras. The objectives are to increase the efforts that offenders must expend and the risk of their being identified or apprehended in committing an offense.

10. Natural Imperatives—ensuring access to necessary goods and services including natural light, clean air and water, healthy foods, physical activity, employment, and housing. Key strategies include pedestrian amenities, public parks, accessible transit systems, quality food sources, and education and employment opportunities. The objective is to promote healthy behaviors and reduce mental fatigue and associated risky behaviors by meeting the biological, social, and economic needs of the population.

The full paper is here.